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By M. C. Ricklefs
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Extra resources for A History of Modern Indonesia: c. 1300 to the Present
In 1614 he had told the Heeren XVII that they could have neither trade without war nor war without trade. From Coen's time onwards, the VOC in Asia saw clearly that there was only one way to establish its power: by destroying everything which got in its way. Whether the policies established by Coen and pursued by his immediate successors (culminating in the events described in chapter 6) were any more wise than gentle is open to question. In Maluku, the VOC certainly made progress towards its goal of a spice monopoly.
It is not impossible that the military conquests ascribed to him were more the efforts of another man known to the Portuguese as 'Tagaril' and 'Falatehan' (perhaps Fadhillah Khan or Fatahillah), who may be confused with Gunungjati in some legends. A manuscript called Purwaka Caruban Nagari has been found in Cirebon which distinguishes between Gunungjati and Fadhillah; it was supposedly written in 1720, but there is reason to doubt its authenticity. Even if the date 1720 is correct, this would still be two centuries after the events, and this text's 'solution' of the problems concerning Gunungjati must be regarded with caution.
The most crucial battle for the history of the Malay Peninsula was probably the Portuguese attack on Johor in 1536, when Sultan Alauddin RiayatSyah I (r. ) lost so many forces that he was obliged to come to terms with the Portuguese. There was thereafter an uneasy alliance between J ohor and Portuguese Malacca, who shared Aceh as their greatest enemy. Conflicts in fact continued, and Asian ships were obliged to call at Johor and pay duties, thus reducing Malacca's income. In 1551 Johor again besieged Malacca, and in 1587 the Portuguese sacked Johor's capital.
A History of Modern Indonesia: c. 1300 to the Present by M. C. Ricklefs