Download e-book for iPad: A History of the Popes 1830-1914 (Oxford History of the by Owen Chadwick
By Owen Chadwick
May possibly a Pope ever consent to be the topic of a political energy? Chadwick offers an research of the factors and outcomes of the top of the historical Papal kingdom, and the mental pressures upon outdated Rome because it got here lower than assault from the Italian Risorgimento; and never in simple terms from Italy, yet from liberal activities in Germany, France, Spain, and Portugal, in addition to Tsarist Russia because it oppressed its Polish matters. If a united Italy used to be to be completed, the nation must disappear. those pressures prompted Popes to withstand "the international" instead of to attempt to persuade it, to make the Vatican extra of a sanctuary at the back of excessive partitions, and to evangelise the extra otherworldly points of Catholic religion. even as they met new ethical calls for: the rights of the laborer in undefined, divorce, and toleration--which they can confront as the Revolution had destroyed the powers of the Catholic kings over their church buildings. therefore, Chadwick issues out, Catholic authority can be way more centralized in Rome.
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Additional resources for A History of the Popes 1830-1914 (Oxford History of the Christian Church)
It rested on a decree (Tametsi) of the Council of Trent, which had remained in force since the sixteenth century. This declared that no marriage was valid unless celebrated by a Catholic priest. Since this draconian decree turned all Protestant or other non-Catholic marriages into adultery, it was interpreted, to save the situation, by the understanding that the decree only applied in countries where it was published; and it was not published in Protestant countries. The theoretical question thereby raised about the status of Protestant marriages, -which the Protestants did not mind even if they were aware of it, was less important than the consequence for a mixed marriage between a Catholic and a Protestant.
Paroles d'un Croyant might contain parable and mystery in its pages but it must be read in the light of the propositions earlier stated by the author and which had been publicly condemned in Mirari vos and then, apparently, recanted by the author. St Paul declared that power came from God, Lamennais said that power came from hell. The two minds were less apart than they seemed, for everyone agreed that government was a consequence of sin. But at that moment of time, and in that context, they seemed as far apart as possible.
Prussia, one of the big Protestant States of the Reformation, and the chief weight of Protestant power in Germany, now had a large Catholic population, partly in the east, where there were many Poles, and even more in the Rhineland, where the disappearance of the old Catholic electorStates increased Prussian power and threw Catholics under Prussian government. The Congress of Vienna had one article (no. 16) on religion in Germany. It affected the settlement of the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648, which was still based upon the success of the Reformation in establishing peace, that each State should have its own established religion (Catholic, Lutheran, or Reformed) and those who would not conform need not have civil rights.
A History of the Popes 1830-1914 (Oxford History of the Christian Church) by Owen Chadwick