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By Simon Hug
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Extra resources for Altering Party Systems: Strategic Behavior and the Emergence of New Political Parties in Western Democracies
King and Crewe (1991), for instance, enumerating possible causes for these problems, draw a depressing picture of the former SDP. The party only participated in two general elections, namely in 1983 and 1987. 25 It has disappeared meanwhile through a merger with the Liberals (Crewe and King 1995). Conclusion The three tales in this chapter hardly cover all possible situations in which a new party might appear or refrain from forming. In two of the chosen cases (Germany in the twenties and Great Britain in the eighties) a new party appeared quite quickly on the electoral scene.
209ff). A Theoretical Model 45 FI . 1. A model of new pa 2 • nature • potential new chooses type party makes demand formation 3 4 party accepts or rejects demand potential new party decides whether to compete in the election or not • established • new party can be either strong or weak. 9 Its strength is determined according to how much harm it could cause the established party should it form a party and fight an electoral battle. As noted above, I represent this uncertainty by letting one actor called Nature (N)IO decide whether the potential new party is a strong or a weak type.
In such environments, game-theoretic models are especially well suited, since the choices available to the actors are relatively well defined. A Game-Theoretic Model of Party Formation In this section I will propose a theoretical model based on a game in exten3. Kitschelt (1988) makes a similar argument, when he relates the success ofleft-Iibertarian parties to the duration of social-democratic government participation. 4. In Koelble's (1991) work the most important element is the organizational level.
Altering Party Systems: Strategic Behavior and the Emergence of New Political Parties in Western Democracies by Simon Hug