John Drew Ridge's Annotated Bibliographies of Mineral Deposits in Africa, Asia PDF


By John Drew Ridge

ISBN-10: 0080204597

ISBN-13: 9780080204598

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Additional info for Annotated Bibliographies of Mineral Deposits in Africa, Asia (exclusive of the USSR) and Australasia

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The lower Bulawayan consists of a basal conglomerate that contains pebbles and boulders of Sebakwian rocks that, in part, are composed of chromite and of the altered portions of the ultramafics. The basal conglomerate was followed by over 7000 feet of arkose, graywacke, and banded ironstone, this sedimentary RHODESIA 43 sequence was interrupted by the extrusion of basalts and the intrusion of many dolerite and some gabbro-pyroxenite sills. The Bulawayan sedimentation had ceased by the time of the intrusion of late Bulawayan granite batholiths and the uplift that accompanied them.

Since gold-quartz veins in the Hartley area are known to cut through the Younger (Biri) granite as well as the older Rhodesdale, it appears probable that the ore fluids came from the same general magma source as the molten mate­ rial from which the Biri granite crystallized and were of much the same age. Between the intrusion of the Rhodesdale and the Biri granites, the following events intervened: (1) the beds of the Bulawayan and Shamvaian systems were laid down, (2) sedimentation of the Bulawayan beds was interrupted by the ex­ trusion of several thousand feet of mafic lavas, (3) deep-seated pressures continued to dome the granite north and southeast of the mine area and synclinally folded the sediments, (4) final folding and settlement was associated with prolonged vertical shearing within the syncline, near zones of weakness between sediments and lavas, (5) torsional movements at much the same time created slight horizontal folds, and, within a weak arch in the sediments, a dolerite stock was intruded, (6) the intrusion of the dolerite greatly exag­ gerated and increased the size of the synclinal fold, (7) tangential stresses were set up relative to this stock and the Cam Spur and the Cam faults were produced, with the former along the line of weakness caused by the lens of north-south striking sediments, (8) as these movements continued, the faults and fractures were reopened and filled with carbonates, (9) the Biri granites then were intruded to the north of the present mine area, while the basement rocks were invaded by numerous related dikes and sills of potash-rich and soda-rich porphyries, (10) the Rhodesdale granite was intruded by minor peg­ matites and mineralized quartz veins were deposited in it, (11) at approxi­ mately the same time, the calcite-filled fractures in the basement (Bulawayan) rocks were invaded by hydrothermal fluids that deposited the metallic and nonmetallic minerals listed later, and (12) vertical movements continued after the gold and its associated minerals had been deposited, and the veins were reopened and were filled with carbonates.

No recent Rhodesian statistics are available. Interpretation of the stratigraphic succession in the Mangula district has undergone several changes in recent years, with Stagman (1959) and Jacobsen (1964) having the sequence in one order but with Jacobsen (1963, written after the 1964 paper cited above) reversing the sequence of the rocks of the immedi­ ate mine area. The oldest rocks in the general area are those of the Bulawayan and Shamvaian systems that make up the middle and upper portions of the Archean basement over so much of Rhodesia.

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Annotated Bibliographies of Mineral Deposits in Africa, Asia (exclusive of the USSR) and Australasia by John Drew Ridge

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